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T
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РУБЕЖ 1960–1970-Х

первое рэп-объединение The Last Poets и Гил Скотт-Херон

Getty Images

Есть множество точек, от которых можно вести отсчет существования хип-хопа, но самой верной и точной, пожалуй, будет появление трио The Last Poets. Гарлемские темнокожие интеллектуалы (определение, очевидно, невозможное в те годы) объединились в музыкальную группу, названную строкой из поэмы южноафриканского поэта Вилли Кгоситсайла. Под африканские барабаны они говорили о черном национализме и необходимости выбраться из-под ига белых, давно сжившихся со своим комплексом Бога. В какой-то момент артисты в соответствии со своими убеждениями взялись за оружие, но выжили и несколько раз объединялись уже на волне популярности хип-хопа в восьмидесятых. Продолжателем их дела стал еще один интеллектуал — уроженец Ямайки Гил Скотт-Херон, который, попрактиковавшись собственно в литературе, тоже занялся экспериментами по скрещиванию настоящей (а не песенной) поэзии и музыки. Его трек Revolution Will Not Be Televised стал программным для многих поколений рэп-артистов, а на закате жизни, в 2010-м, он выпустил альбом I’m New Here, где ему подыгрывал, в частности, Дэймон Албарн.

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Rex / Fotodom

2 АВГУСТА 1979 года

день рождения рэпа — Rapper's Delight от Sugarhill Gang

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Официальный день рождения рэпа — примерно такого, каким мы его знаем. Началось все, как часто бывает, с экспромта. В сентябре 1978-го британцы The Clash в компании Blondie и The Chic выступали в нью-йоркском зале Palladium. Во время сета The Chic на сцену внезапно выскочили несколько черных парней и начали зачитывать куплеты, отталкиваясь от дискобита песни The Good Times. Позднее парней собрала в студии продюсер Сильвия Робинсон, и так родился Rapper’s Delight — первый настоящий рэп-сингл в истории, поднявшийся до 36-го места в чартах. Занятно, что тогда авантюра, затеянная Робинсон, воспринималась как шутка, однако именно эта шалость в итоге и стала искрой, из которой разгорелось пламя. Кроме того, в песне были заявлены темы, характерные для неполитического хип-хопа: секс, жизнь на улицах и, конечно, изобретательное самовосхваление.



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Getty Images

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НАЧАЛО 1980-Х

Грандмастер Флэш и Afrika Bambaataa — основоположники рэп-культуры



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Параллельно с Sugarhill Gang на улицах буйным цветом расцветала диджейская культура. Тогда же появились и первые MC — диджеи, зачитывавшие импровизированные тексты поверх своих миксов. Однако в ранг настоящей культуры все происходящее возвели уроженец Барбадоса Джозеф Саддлер (он же Грандмастер Флэш) и Лэнс Тэйлор — большой человек из Бронкса, который так продуктивно припал к корням во время поездки в Африку, что взял себе имя зулусского вождя Африка Бамбата. Дальше — споры о том, кто же из них, собственно, придумал само по себе слово «хип-хоп», но эти дискуссии оставим пуристам. Важнее то, что Флэш со своей группой The Furious Five стал первым рэпером, вошедшим в Зал славы рок-н-ролла, а Бамбата не только познакомил с рэпом европейских тусовщиков, но и привил новому направлению неумолимую механику электро в духе Kraftwerk (см. синглы Planet Rock и Renegades of Funk).



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Getty Images

Getty Images

1986 

1986 

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   N W A       и       г а н г с т а - р э п

N.W.A и гангста-рэп как трибуна «черной Америки»

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N.W.A (Niggaz Wit Attitudes) не были первой рэп-группой в истории, но при этом именно они стали первой, существование которой было воспринято как явная угроза общественному порядку. Доктор Дре, Айс Кьюб, Изи-И, Ди-джей Йелла, МС Рен и Арабиан Принс стали теми, кто вновь, после The Last Poets, заговорил о проблемах черной Америки в полный голос. Разница была в том, что речь здесь шла не об абстрактном росте самосознания и борьбе с собирательным внешним врагом, а о конкретных действиях. Вышедший в 1988-м альбом Straight Outta Compton произвел эффект разорвавшейся ядерной бомбы, концерты N.W.A срывала полиция, а ФБР пыталось запретить хит Fuck Tha Police. В ответ на обвинения в экстремизме артисты говорили, что просто описывают то, что происходит на улицах их родного Комптона, — то, на что большая часть населения США предпочитает закрывать глаза. Дебютная пластинка группы до сих пор остается эталоном гангста-рэпа, и нет ничего удивительного в том, что именно N.W.A в итоге (спустя, правда, четверть века после распада в 1991-м) стали героями первого рэп-блокбастера «Голос улиц».



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Getty Images

Getty Images

1988

Public Enemy с альбомом It Takes a Nation of Millions to  Hold  Us  Back

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Пока N.W.A призывали покончить с полицией в Калифорнии, в Нью-Йорке бушевали другие «враги государства». Центральными фигурами здесь стали Карлтон Дуглас Риденауэр (он же Чак Ди) и Уильям Джонатан Дрейтон-младший (выступавший под псевдонимом Флейвор Флейв), ассистировали им еще два МС — Профессор Грифф (Ричард Гриффин) и Терминатор Икс (Норман Роджерс). Под неистовый фанковый ритм Чак и Флейвор изобретательно костерили белую Америку на социально-политическом поле, демонстрируя не только ярость, но и крайнюю текстуальную изобретательность. Благодаря Public Enemy стало понятно, что рэп — это не только музыка черных, но и вполне весомая альтернатива рок-н-роллу, который, кстати, был обогащен силами ньюйоркцев, — речь не только о совместном треке с металлистами Anthrax, но и о вдохновении, подаренном, например, вокалисту Red Hot Chili Peppers Энтони Кидису, который учился своему пластичному речитативу у Чака Ди. Ничего удивительного, в общем, в том, что сегодня Чак, помимо деятельности в составе Public Enemy, участвует в проекте Prophets of Rage с музыкантами Rage Against the Machine.



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Getty Images

Getty Images

1992

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Доктор Дре с его сольным дебютом The Chronic и джи-фанк



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После конфликта с Изи-И, коллегой по N.W.A, Доктор Дре (он же Андре Ромелл Янг) покинул группу и прибился к лейблу Death Row, возглавляемому гангстером Шугом Найтом. Здесь Дре доказал, что в сольном формате способен выступать не менее мощно, чем в компании комптонских корешей. Демонстрацией достижений стал не только дебютный сольник Chronic, но и первая пластинка Снуп Догга Doggystyle — именно Дре увидел в вечно расслабленном парне будущую большую звезду. Кроме того, работа над этими альбомами помогла Янгу довести до совершенства стиль джи-фанк — разновидность гангста-рэпа, основанную на мягком фанковом бите, витиеватых синтезаторах и нежных подпевках.



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Getty Images

Getty Images

1995

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Me Against the World, превративший Тупака Шакура в первую рок-звезду от рэпа

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Гарлемский уроженец Тупак Амару Шакур всего за шесть лет сольной карьеры полностью изменил ландшафт хип-хоп-культуры и отношение к рэпу вообще. Тупак стал первой настоящей рок-звездой от хип-хопа — красавец, пижон, гангстер, интеллектуал и невероятный талант. В его песнях сочетались мотивы афроцентризма, гангстерские будни и всё, что только можно. Он был первым рэпером, выпустившим двойной альбом (All Eyez on Me), и первым рэпером, сыгравшим главные роли в большом голливудском кино («В тупике» с Тимом Ротом). Его гибель не только поставила жирную точку в его жизни, но и возвела его самого в пантеон селебрити-мучеников. Ну а его противостояние с другим крайне фактурным рэп-хитмейкером — Бигги Смоллсом (Notorious B.I.G.) — стало одним из главных трагических сюжетов девяностых.



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Getty Images

1999

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первый белый рэпер Эминем, выступающий наравне с темнокожими исполнителями, и  его  The  Slim  Shady  EP

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Все тот же Доктор Дре случайно обнаружил мини-альбом The Slim Shady EP в гараже у начальника лейбла Interscope Records Джимми Айовина. Янг заинтересовался молодым рэпером и вскоре решил сделать из него звезду, что тандему с блеском, как известно, и удалось. Лютая техничная читка обозленного на весь мир язвительного Эминема моментально стала одним из самых ярких явлений в хип-хопе. Маршалл «Эминем» Мэзерс не был первым белым рэпером (до него были как минимум Beastie Boys), но он стал первым, кто на равных выступал с черными братьями. Ну а их дуэт с Дре стал одним из самых продуктивных и коммерчески успешных в истории хип-хопа.



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Getty Images

Getty Images

2000-е 

начало  эры  продюсеров
в  хип - хопе

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Нулевые — эпоха, которую поклонники настоящего хип-хопа вспоминают с неохотой. Рэп коммерциализировался, а мейнстримовых представителей жанра вроде продвинутого Эминемом 50 Cent быстро стали считать подделками. Тем не менее именно эта эпоха стала триумфом развития собственно звука и музыки. Тимбаленд (как к нему ни относись), Скотт Сторч, дуэт The Neptunes — их достижения и наработки показали, что музыка в хип-хопе и R’n’B может иметь не меньше смысла и значения, чем собственно текст. Чтобы убедиться в этом, послушайте, скажем, спродюсированный The Neptunes альбом дуэта Clipse (Пуша Ти начинал именно там) Hell Hath No Fury.



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Getty Images

2001

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растущий авторитет Джей-Зи
и
успех его альбома The Blueprint

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Шон Картер (Jay-Z) начал свою карьеру еще в девяностых, однако настоящего успеха добился лишь в начале нового тысячелетия. Виртуозная переработка гангстерского прошлого, пристальное внимание к слову и, что важно, высшая степень контроля качества музыки. Вышедший в 2001-м альбом The Blueprint на долгие годы стал планкой качества, а сам Джей-Зи начал свой путь к званию первого и главного магната от рэпа, который может чередовать рассказы о бурной противозаконной молодости с визитами в Белый дом.

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Getty Images

2003 

альбом Boy in da Corner Диззи Раскала  и  взлет  грайма

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Своего рода альтернативой все более респектабельному американскому рэпу стал британский грайм. Как всегда, островитяне открещиваются, когда их изобретение называют подвидом хип-хопа, однако для досужего слушателя ситуация именно такова. С той поправкой, что грайм, выросший не из фанка, а из британского гэриджа, — музыка куда более яростная и агрессивная. Первым лицом нового стиля быстро стал Диззи Раскал — вундеркинд, получивший за свой дебютный альбом Boy Ii da Corner премию Mercury Prize.



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Rex / Fotodom

Rex / Fotodom

2004

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Speakerboxxx/The Love Below получает первый в истории рэпа «Грэмми» как лучший альбом

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Своего рода апофеозом развития американского хип-хопа стал альбом Speakerboxxx/The Love Below дуэта из Атланты Outkast. На пластинке, даже по меркам десятилетней давности, царил полнейший беспредел. Во-первых, это был длиннющий (больше двух часов) двойной альбом, во-вторых, количество приглашенных МС 
и музыкантов занимало неприлично много места в буклете. Итог — победа на «Грэмми» на общих основаниях как лучший альбом года, а не лучший рэп-альбом, хотя и эту статуэтку Outkast тоже забрали (отдельная категория для хип-хоп-пластинок появилась у премии еще в 1995 году).



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Getty Images

Getty Images

2010

рэп разрушает жанровые границы — альбом My Beautiful Twisted Nightmare Канье Уэста 



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Впрочем, настоящим апофеозом стилистического развития стал пятый альбом экс-битмейкера Джей-Зи Канье Уэста. Фокус, проделанный Канье, заключался в том, что рэп им понимался как операционная система или спрут, перерабатывающий под свои нужды абсолютно все, до чего может дотянуться. Эта бравурная и, что уж там, тяжеловесная пластинка стала тем не менее абсолютным торжеством рэпа как нового рок-н-ролла — в смысле сочетания доступности техники производства и практически безграничных возможностей.



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Getty Images

2013




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альбом Long. Live. ASAP рэпера A$AP Rocky и торжество клауд-рэпа

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Впрочем, техника техникой, а стадионы тоже сами себя не раскачают. Будто бы специально для господства над беснующимися толпами появился Асап Роки — бешеный фрик (во многом наследник инопланетянина из Атланты — Лила Уэйна), запросто умеющий переключаться между режимами дурманного эмбиента и скоростного рейва. Его дебютный альбом среди прочего стал еще и одной из главных пластинок, заявивших новое направление — клауд-рэп, жанр, условно соответствующий эмо-року и предполагающий фокус на фрустрациях, рефлексиях и прочих важных для всякого молодого человека вещах.








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Getty Images

2015 



пластинка To Pimp a Butterfly будущего лауреата Пулицеровской премии Кендрика Ламара

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Главной надеждой хип-хопа Кендрика Дакворта называли еще в 2012-м, но такого от него правда никто не ожидал. Заручившись поддержкой лучших сил жанра (включая Доктора Дре — не будем даже лишний раз поражаться его чутью на таланты), Кендрик выдал альбом-энциклопедию, аккумулирующий едва ли не все достижения хип-хопа. Toт Pimp a Butterfly стал манифестом всего сразу — афроцентризма, движения Black Lives Matter, абсолютной творческой свободы и стремления не к революции, а к эволюции как к естественному бескровному пути. Кроме того, Кендрик показал себя фантастическим артистом и не менее удивительным поэтом — изобретательным, точным и едким. Итог — работа с U2 и Пулицеровская премия.

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Getty Images

Getty Images

2019






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фильм «ЧЕрная пантера» берЕт
т   р   и  «Оскара»







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Getty Images

Амбициозный проект компании Marvel — первый блокбастер с темнокожим супергероем в центре повествования — оправдал себя на все сто. Черная Америка получила первый кинокомикс (хоть и с несколько сомнительной моралью), сам фильм — три «Оскара» (пусть и в технических номинациях), а меломаны — целый рэп-альбом, спродюсированный Кендриком Ламаром, который стал к ленте официальным саундтреком и был выпущен отдельной пластинкой.

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О партнере


Бренд Certina, чья история насчитывает более 130 лет, стал часовым партнером проекта «Новый рэп: Хедлайнеры» Esquire. Поддержка молодых, динамично развивающихся талантов перекликается с ДНК марки: Certina — это не просто часы, но символ активной жизненной позиции. Инновационные разработки, швейцарское качество и широкий ценовой диапазон всегда привлекали молодых покупателей, которые переживали решающие моменты жизни, взлеты и падения, с Certina на запястье.




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