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От порицания
до романтики и символизма: как художники и дизайнеры интерпретировали семь смертных грехов в своих работах

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Семь главных христианских грехов — гордыня, зависть, жадность, лень, гнев, чревоугодие и блуд — на протяжении веков были излюбленным сюжетом для аллегорических полотен, фресок и мозаик, а сейчас вдохновили дизайнеров канадского бренда Moose Knuckles на создание капсульной коллекции 7DS — Seven Deadly Sins, запуск которой состоялся в Лондоне на вечеринке Temple of Sin. Это куртки, футболки и толстовки, в которых образы пороков интерпретируются на новый лад, но в связке со сложившимися культурными канонами — через цвета, детали и символические принты.

Зависть:

Зависть:

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змея внутри каждого


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В средневековом искусстве тема пороков и добродетелей была популярным сюжетом, и чаще всего грехи изображали при помощи аллегорических фигур животных, порой самых разных и неожиданных. Насчет зависти же все однозначно сходятся на змее: например, ее можно найти в серии мозаик в крипте базилики Нотр-Дам-де-Фурвьер в Лионе, посвященных семи смертным грехам. Змея подначивает Адама и Еву, змея кусает завистника на фреске Джотто ди Бондоне в капелле дель Арена, и змея же стала символом на карте Таро — мистическом принте на футболке Moose Knuckles Canada.

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Гордыня:

Гордыня:

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корень зла, прекрасный и опасный


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Папа Григорий Великий не только точно определил все главные христианские грехи (именно после его трудов в христианской традиции они утвердились в том виде, в котором мы чаще всего встречаем их сейчас в культуре), но и выстроил их иерархию. Телесные, связанные со слабостью плоти грехи он полагал менее тяжкими (что взять со смертного тела!), чем душевные, основанные на помыслах, а корнем всех их считал гордыню. И пока другие пороки художники стремились показать безобразными, высокомерие оставалось нарочито красивым — как напоминание, что увлечение собственной красотой приводит в ад и падших ангелов, и людей. Эту художественную традицию можно проследить от Средневековья до ар-деко: в конце XIX века Сергей Соломко рисует свое «Высокомерие» в образе прекрасной девушки-павлина. Создавая посвящение гордыне для коллекции Seven Deadly Sins, дизайнеры Moose Knuckles Canada вдохновились именно тонкой гранью между дозволенной красотой и грехом.

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Гнев:

Гнев:

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УЖЕ НЕ  РЫЦАРЬ В СИЯЮЩИХ  ДОСПЕХАХ



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Необузданную ярость, которая могла стать причиной войн и распрей, в искусстве порой изображали в виде льва или человека, рвущего на себе одежду, но чаще отождествляли с вооруженной мужской фигурой — воином, который готов напасть на беззащитного. Такой получилась «Аллегория гнева» Виллема ван Мириса, этот же сюжет есть и у Иоахима фон Зандрарта — обе картины относятся к середине XVII века. Оружие и доспехи одновременно становятся и атрибутом силы и доблести, и символом смертного греха. Элементы доспеха с кожаными наплечниками прослеживаются и в парке из коллекции Moose Knuckles Seven Deadly Sins, а стальная эмблема бренда в виде двух заостренных капель становится кастетом на рисунке, украшающем ее подкладку.

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Лень:

Лень:

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замкнуться на собственном мире

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В перечне смертных грехов лень стала фигурировать отнюдь не сразу — изначально ей предшествовало уныние. Считалось, что это явления одного порядка: состояние, при котором человек равнодушен к происходящему вокруг, в представлении средневековых христиан, отдаляло его от Бога 
и, следовательно, было грехом. Иероним Босх в своей картине «Семь смертных грехов и четыре последние вещи» отводит каждому из грехов свой сегмент круга и изображает уныние в виде спящего человека, который не в состоянии принять от монахини молитвенные четки. Серебряный цвет, отражающий внешнее и оставляющий персону внутри в изоляции, стал в коллекции 7DS символом безразличия, праздности и лености — именно так можно перевести английское слово indolence, обозначающее этот грех и появляющееся также на толстовках и футболках из капсулы.

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Жадность:

Жадность:

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счастье не купить за монеты


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Алчность и сребролюбие, в отличие от других пороков, несложно было показать буквально, и художники всех времен этим пользовались. Жадность изображали в виде человека, охраняющего свои богатства — сундук драгоценностей, кошель с монетами или золотые яблоки, или же в виде нечистого на руку судьи, берущего взятку. Этот образ, начавшийся еще с библейского сюжета, прошел через столетия практически без изменений, и теперь рука с монетой как символ жадности появилась в виде принта на футболках и подкладках курток Moose Knuckles из коллекции 7DS.

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Чревоугодие:

ЧРЕВОУГОДИЕ:

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Средневековье против античности


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Неумеренность в употреблении еды и напитков порицалась и высмеивалась средневековыми богословами, поскольку, по их мнению, сближала людей и животных (Питер Брейгель и Иероним Босх в своих гравюрах и картинах иногда показывают эту трансформацию буквально). Но ключевым моментом греха было то, что тяга к вкусной еде, сладостям и вину также считалась пережитком язычества. Поэтому и живописные сюжеты, призванные порицать чревоугодие, нередко сводились к изображению древнегреческих пиров, с их изобилием и виноградными лозами — символами Вакха. Зеленая, как сладкий виноград, пуховая куртка Moose Knuckles Canada, посвящена идее того, как священный обычай в одной культуре становится грехом в другой.


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Блуд:

Блуд:

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от порока к дозволенной страсти


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У блуда, пожалуй, одна из самых насыщенных историй в искусстве, притом этот грех прошел в изображениях художников занятную многовековую трансформацию. В Средневековье похоть однозначно порицали и аллегорически изображали в виде подчеркнуто некрасивых нагих фигур, но в более поздние периоды художники отказались от иносказательности: уже Босх в своей «Аллегории чревоугодия и любострастия» показывает грех предметно. Чем дальше, тем больше плотская страсть лишается коннотаций порока и становится частью присущих человеку черт и слабостей — художники Возрождения персонифицируют ее в виде богини Венеры и охотно изображают любовные сцены. В одеждах и убранствах комнат на таких полотнах все больше преобладает алый цвет, который раньше ассоциировался с возвышенными сюжетами, и сегодня у нас уже нет сомнения в том, что красный — цвет страсти. Неудивительно, что в коллекции 7DS Moose Knuckles Canada блуд олицетворяет именно ярко-красная куртка. Остается только задуматься, где страсть и энергия любви переходит границу порока.


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Talent, Kristen Noel Crawley 

Photographer, Vijat Mohindra 

Production, W+Studio

7 смертных грехов в лицах:
 7 человек, кто в наши дни превратил нарушение библейских заповедей в деньги


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